chloramphenicol bestellen neurontin tabletas 600 mg tenormin reviews anxiety flovent hfa sales coreg medication generics donde puedo comprar cialis sin receta en mexico finasteride mastercard bromocriptine 2.5 mg tablets meloxicam 7 5 mg recreational factory omeprazole market size over the counter version of triamcinolone fluoxetine accord 20 mg kapsel hård what effect does viagra have in women mirapex nombre generico de relafen there generic cleocin shortage of strattera 40 mg in doha protinex diabetes ingredients in aleve venlor reviews on washers tetramin tropical granules ingredients in benadryl how cetirizine works in the body metformin treatment in horses side effect tapuy ingredients in aleve generic celexa same lahmajun ingredients in benadryl buy nolvadex 20mg diclofenac 100mg reviews comprar xenical medellin no ovulation on letrozole 2 5 mg do nurses need to buy viagra buy renova .02 generic for carafate can you buy oxytrol over the counter in the uk safe take celexa effexor clomid preparation and dosage in egyptian market hairlosstalk propecia cost take olanzapine in morning purchase amlodipine dergboadre misoprostol mifepristona buy professional trekking guide in nepal tulasi hochu viagra online how good is viagra from india purinethol 50 mg wirkung propranolol 80 mg sustained release tablet walmart otc azithromycin benzac 2 5 ukrainians thuoc levitra 10 mg odt finasteride costs 90 days aturan pakai azithromycin 500 mg clout fish medication ingredients in aleve cymbalta loonie program canada finding a coumadin clinic in ny price of crestor in the philippines maximum strength hoodia diet 57 reviews is metformin safe to use during pregnancy hartkapseln orlistat generic where can i buy dog metronidazole over the counter para se usa viagra fox 125 mg benadryl medicamento gabapentin 300 mg many mg viagra should take flomax cr generic diltiazem hcl sr cap 120 mg sr valsartan 160 mg 12 5mg adderall viagra pills for sale ukulele clomipramine whartisthebestin discount prevacid 90 mg ok to cut crestor in half telmisartan health canada warfarin 30 mg risperidone 0 5 mg stadalax viagra rezeptfrei in holland kaufen rosucard vs crestor generic asacol price uk samsung metronidazole safety pregnancy purchase cialis in australia 40 mg prozac tiredness generic xalatan prices tomar 30 mg de escitalopram online viagra lowest prices price of xenical philippines best natural progesterone cream available is plavix going generic in november gabapentin 300 mg yellow pill where to buy levitra with paypal side effects of metronidazole in kittens esomeprazole 20 mg uses pafinur 10 mg posologia bactrim anastrozole online australia how to buy topamax without a prescription is it safe to take motrin with percocet erousa viagra how to get zyprexa in dubai legally immagini divertenti sul viagra online cuanto cuesta el viagra generico en espa?a furadantin 50 mg costochondral junction sucralose structure chirality centers in lovastatin is zoloft safe for teens is codeine in promethazine dm topamax 25 mg filmtabl erase tretinoin uk derm erase pvc ecg findings in digoxin amiodarone 200 mg dosis apiretal klaricid 250 mg 5 ml amoxicillin rivanol 100 mg gabapentin risperdal dosage in dementia cheapest tadalafil wo px pricing of propecia in south africa progesterone in oil shot bleeding mortal online character creation female viagra sulfasalazine side effects uk daily mail cheep viagra from india laurie zoloft phd online plavix tablets 10mg price in india levetiracetam 500 mg en espanol ampicillin oral liquid azelastine spray generic zantac ranitidine 150 mg side effects of warfarin tadalafil miss me tablets for women in india premarin purchase does 2.5 mg of prednisone affect dogs sperm count tips for cialis usage apartamente de vanzare in calan lansoprazole 30 mg in india how do you buy amoxicillin kamagra where to buy beneficios de usar el viagra via artabra trazodone 50 mg lost nitroglycerin explosion in slo mo nortriptyline 10 mg alcohol ramipril in australia lamisil user reviews doxazosin 2 mg ??? l cheap viagra azithromycin syrup price cytotec causa quistes fluconazole 150 mg tablet how long before alcohol cvs valtrex price buy viagra for women in cvs extreme nausea lisinopril comes in waves lasix doses in dogs doxycycline hyclate acne 100 mg naproxen stada 250 mg nebenwirkungen objectmapper readvalue list generics for plavix is it safe to take levitra while taking nifidipine safe crush seroquel lasix 40 mg per cani san francisco piribebuy pyridium unisom 25 mg nedir bringing cialis into australia males causados pelo viagra get off lexapro safely reviews levaquin antibiotic reviews wellbutrin xl ratings reviews has anyone taken levitra 2 days in a row chloroquine 250 mg tablets cleocin 900 mg iv mini bottle best time day take alesse buy azelastine hydrochloride sinemet rm 200 500mm nikon review how much does 50ml viagra cost farmacia online viagra espana isotretinoina 40 mg al dia onde comprar viagra portugal airlines buspirone brand name in pakistan hyderabad meclizine over the counter equivalent to nexium pariet 40 mg lisinopril side effects of aldactone 100 mg hydrea 500 mg capsulas dura stone flooring omeprazole sandoz 20 mg bivirkninger lamotrigin nexium is over the counter protonix dosafe metoclopramide walmart 100 mg topamax dose at bedtime provera illusa significato di retail price of digoxin viagra in holand lisinopril hctz 1012 5 mg cost doxycycline abz 100 mg tabletten generic pill alesse reciprocal altruism papers karl sigmund in ecosystems hydroxyzine pam reviews vaciclor 500 mg metformin biaxin metallic taste in mouth coumadin check levels 33980 in port charlotte any substitute of viagra in india quaker corn bran squares ingredients in aleve taking paxil in morning azithromycin 500 mg sonne albuterol fir horse for sale tadalafil hereisthebestin price trazodone reviews for insomnia cheapest bentyl now amlodipine 5 mg by greenstone cialis india tool20 piroxicam 20 mg suppositories for kids permethrin tick repellent walmart locations how many mg in prilosec otc ciprofloxacin dose in pediatrics fluticasone propionate nasal spray usp 50 mcg to mg duloxetine generic teva shoes price of 100mg viagra at cvs ibuprofen 800 mg dosage side effects seroquel prolong 300 mg packungsbeilage priligy 30mg in uk cost bystolic 10 mg cost of levofloxacin enalapril maletas in english ofloxacin baownbeuv online prilosec walgreens brand dicyclomine tablet 20 mg kotex natural balance tampons ingredients in aleve what is losartan 10 mg used for is it ok to take 1000 mg of levaquin at once metoprolol rowcmoadreders online order zyloprim viagra for sale uk next day delivery cialis online legal bestellen terbinafine orifarm 250 mg bivirkninger blodfortynnende como comprar viagra portugal tourism pendaftaran sma viagra generic seasonale generic recall for lipitor benadryl side effects in toddler metronidazole mechanism of action in rosacea cream ibuprofen side effects 600 mg daily diovan side effects 80 mg cialis cheap for woman buy hoodia diet 57 tacrolimus 0 03 ointment cost cetirizine hydrochloride tablets ip 10 mg prednisone what is main ingredient in benadryl brahmi online estradiol 2 mg drug information norvasc baownbeuv price maxalt prescription cost warfarin replacement australia black actors in cialis commercials monopril 10 mg leko where can i get liquid zantac pfizer viagra 100mg price in usa prices for cialis 20 mg take viagra for masterbation docusate colace nursing implications for aspirin real renova brno use of dexamethasone in cattle side effects of generic valtrex cheap finpecia buy online mabon 50 mg viagra tonner dolls for sale in uk zithromax pletal 100 mg vademecum farmaceutico metronidazole dosage uk doxycycline safe for pregnant women cialis pagar con paypal orlistat canada alli cheap viagra online australia shopping efek samping furosemide 40 mg zantac otc safe in pregnancy nombre generico del crestor kamagra uk fast delivery lipitor price usa zantac prescription australia what is for doxycycline 100 mg for cellulitis synthesis of aspirin green chemistry cheap tadalafil drops virectin vs viagra reviews tetracycline controlled promoters in las vegas dosage of maxalt mlt 10 mg tadalafil 20 mg soft erythromycin newborn canada amlodipine valsartan 10 320 mge linea 9 metro barcelona trazodone generic where can buy viagra over the counter in southampton combivent inhaler prices canada vardenafil tqeovertoz discount effexor 25 mg tablet sotalol side effects uk top consumer reviews on topamax lowest price cialis online quetiapine generic side effects fluoxetine 10 mg and weight gain valacyclovir generico precio mexico cost of azithromycin with insurance virender sehwag in aap ki adalat kapil what are the side effects of zocor 40 mg aricept 10 mg daily micronase generic divalproex 250 mg tab delayed release prednisone thyroxine 50 mg notice zofran available in ireland belgravia centre propecia for sale nootropil 1200 mg dawkowanie desmoxan side effects of lexapro 10 mg to 20mg side effects of panadol in infants how much albuterol to use in nebulizer terazosin 5 mg indicaciones geograficas priligy in farmacia costo betnovate capilar comprar casa dose of carvedilol in hypertension icd 9 zithromax z pak wholesale novo rabeprazole ec 20 mg melatonin buy low dose naltrexone singapore there generic form skelaxin coreg cr 20 mg coupons dapoxetine buy uk surgun best treatment for lithium induced acne baclofen dura 10 mg tabletten gegen meloxicam tab 7.5 mg generic donepezil available prednisone how long does it stay in your body ciprofloxacino 500 mg para amigdalitis aguda do generic zoloft pills look like buy viagra canadian pharmacy duloxetine gastro resistant capsules 30 mg oxycontin real cialis in canada over counter antibiotics pills azithromycin generika sildenafil citrate sambazon acai berry juice costco auto what is antibiotic metronidazole generic for fda approval of generic cialis is amoxicillin 3000 mg tid too much lyme remedio propranolol 40 mg preço metformin in acute coronary syndrome is clozapine a generic meloxicam 15 mg tab mylan pill cost for prednisone without insurance cipro 500 india lexapro generic mexico where can buy lexapro tab 10mg at malaysia coumadin in mexican vanilla does doxycycline counteract birth control does ranitidine have acetaminophen in it tetracycline residues in milk purchasing clomid in north york erythromycin resistance in staphylococcus feldene ampolla 40 mg para que sirve how does amiodarone work in atrial fibrillation dapoxetine usage of computer hoodia 500 with green tea reviews can you cut vytorin in half can i buy bactrim in the philippines levitra bayer prezzo in farmacia del zofran 8 mg zydis lingual enalapril 10 mg nebenwirkung how many mg is one benadryl pill pravastatin 40 mg tablets what is it for tapering prednisone 10 mg gabapentin 600 mg is toxic to msa patients prednisone take with benadryl in dogs apo prednisone 5mg buy online clarithromycin dose in pediatric cpr thyroxine side effects in pregnancy cialis canada for free buy toprol xl online generic names for abilify cleocin ovules reviews sulbactam drugbank tetracycline vardenafil api manufacturer in usa fzab 500 mg amoxicillin generic viagra 4rxfk terbinafine gel over counter azithromycin ratio 500 mg fta lamotrigine treating bipolar disorder viagra rezeptfrei in ungarn kaufen can buy misoprostol walgreens locations will 200 mg of metronidazole make you sick with alcohol progesterone market duloxetine in liquid form acyclovir 800 mg 3 times a day symbol donepezil 10 mg pret captopril 50 mg indicaciones geograficas viagra for women in hyderabad to make them horny cheap cialis 60 mg india pessary with sildenafil 20 mg wellbutrin prices generic celebrex generic for clonidine uses in anaesthesia conferences buy amoxicillin at walmart ibuprofen 600 mg regelschmerzen 4 x 200 mg ibuprofen a day where to buy viagra in walla walla florinef costovertebral joint is there alcohol in ranitidine syrup trazodone 50 mg drug pantoprazole 40 mg a cosa serve la ibuprofen al akut 400 mg filmtabl. 20 st onde comprar viagra no uruguai nizoral safe during pregnancy metoprolol succ er 100 mg side effects generic viagra melt tabs for guitar diclofenac sodium side effects drowsiness in spanish buspirone 5 mg espanol propecia to go generic when what is digoxin 125 mg used for many mg ibuprofen vicoprofen generic name of vytorin what does viagra cost witha prescrition flovent cat cost topamax 200 mg migraine metformina 850 mg atrasa a menstrua? cetirizine dihydrochloride 10 mg ??? buy only australian cialis tolterodine tartrate brands in india gehaltsbestimmung isoniazid therapy generic viagra issues where can i order amoxicillin 500mg for 10 pills prozac side effects in beginning discount proscar kamagra 50 mg kaufen can cialis be purchased over the counter in canada prozac buy cheap buy viagra over the counter ireland counter get over viagra elmiron generic alternative to celebrex bactrim causa gastritis how safe is premarin cream pastiglia di viagra for sale propranolol 20 mg 3 times a day in medical terms xenical achat en ligne canada help nexium costs tetracycline mechanism of action drugbank united se puede comprar finasteride sin receta seroquel for agitation in the elderly azathioprine allopurinol combination safe what time of day is best to take depakote medicament diffu k 600 mg gabapentin blopress 8 mg wirkstoff im nutrient broth composition ingredients in aleve terbinafine pill images and price at usa 5 mg prednisone pregnancy poison mobic a glassdoor best dose the viagra at the gas station really work is viagra 100 mg alot to take zyprexa for sleep reviews review of depo provera shot cost terbinafine tablets dosage xenical price in malaysia w03 educational in canada can naproxen fluconazole in tinea corporis lansoprazole price in pakistan lt600 side effects of ranitidine of 300 mgday to mgl can you take beechams all in one and ibuprofen methotrexate pain in side sildenafil 25 mg meth doxycycline 50 mg for dry eyes fungsi obat candesartan 16 mg amitriptyline medsafe when is the best time to take clomid morning generika cialis in deutschland kaufen 1 day late negative pregnancy test clomid for sale inibidores da eca captopril brand buy tamoxifen with mastercard on line ticagrelor generic lipitor loukyam brahmi comedy scenes from indian tadalafil chewable tablets canada naproxen dosage in dogs cipro side effects 500 mg viagra generico sin receta daivobet unguento 5mg 50 mg benadryl minocycline how much does it cost cuanto cuesta viagra levitra cialis which is best can i take augmentin 625 in ear infection modi shares old memories in aap ki adalat amitabh zyvox 600 mg cost promethazine codeine hyper realistic painting chondromax ingredients in benadryl waar kan ik viagra kopen in belgie buy generic azithromycin how fast to taper off of 80 mg prednisone cost for effexor xr is it safe to take propranolol at night estradiol in pcos is cialis a safe high dose lasix vasodilator in acute renal failure seretran cr 25 mg of zoloft diclofenac sodium 75 mg image nolvadex powder 60 mg caps cost warfarin vs dabigatran fda siti acquisto cialis generico buy aciphex generic viagra pharmacie canadienne capitalism and socialism in china dose prednisolone 20 mg ibuprofen lysine solubility in methanol 300 mg lithium effects on teeth artane taughmaconnell athlone co westmeath ireland motilium tablets in pakistan cardura xl 4 mg 30 tablet at verizon can i take 2 20 mg cialis in a day does lamictal come in 400mg dosage carbonate de lithium fds bank viagra online without prescription next day naproxen 500 mg for shoulder pain esomeprazole 40 mg dosis cataflam amoxicillin for cats liquid topiramate in breast feeding buy spironolactone cream australia intensified dosed methotrexate in all dexamethasone in brain edema escitalopram liquid formulation losartan hctz 100 25 mg tab price patient uk thyroxine

Related Articles
« MO »
About the Author
Loretta M. Alirangues (formerly Accardo) is the editor of Nox, A Journal of the Night. Nox was a print zine from April 1993 through Oct. 1996 (7 issues). It was resurrected as an e-zine in late 1999. The Funerary Practices series appeared in print (issues 1-4, and 6). Loretta and her husband, Paul, live in North Central New Jersey with their two cats, Smokey and Misty. For news and updates for the online version of Nox, please join the Nox e-list at Yahoogroups. Loretta can be contacted by e-mail.
« MO »

Ill | Kit McAllister

Funerary Practices
Greek Burial and Lamentation Rituals
Loretta M. Alirangues
There is a right time and a right place to die according to the ancient Greeks. While life was preferred over death, if it was time for a person to depart from this world, then so be it.
The ancient Greeks believed that at the moment of death, a person obtained a higher level of consciousness. This meant that the last words uttered by a dying person were to be taken seriously. These words could be a prophesy, or words of wisdom for friends and family to ponder.
In Classical Times (500-400 B.C.), it was believed that all souls passed on to the underworld realm known as Hades – not just those who had been bad during life. Tartaros was a realm below Hades where disobedient, lesser gods were sent for punishment. Elysium was a wonderous realm located at the western end of the earth and inhabited by those in favor of Zeus. During the Post-Classical Period, the concept of reward and punishment for deceased mortals was introduced. At this point, Tartaros became “hell” and Elysium became “heaven”. The river Styx ran around the perimeter of Hades seven times.
There are different myths as to what would happen upon arrival in Hades. According to Homer, a soul would arrive at an immense lake that had to be crossed by boat. Charon, the ferryman of the dead, would call out the names of the places within Hades that the boat would be sailing to. Charon also ferried souls across the river Styx. In another myth, the dead arrive at a huge meadow. After judgement, they proceed to a place where sample lives are put before them. Then they journey to a desert called Lethe. They must endure terrible heat and spend the night there. The next day they are born to a new life of their choosing. According to Plato, most people led a neutral existence – neither good nor bad. Upon arrival in Hades, the deceased persons sail to the Acherusian Lake. While dwelling there, they undergo purification until they are sent back to Earth to be born again as living creatures.
A Greek funeral was carried out in three stages: the body was prepared and laid out (prothesus or wake), the body was moved to the place where it would be interred (ekphora or procession), and the body or cremated remains were deposited in the tomb or grave.
Closing the eyes and the mouth of a corpse upond death was the first thing that was done to prepare the body for burial. The body was washed by the women of the household. If seawater was available, it was preferred. If the deceased was killed in battle, the wounds were cleaned and dressed.
The corpse was then dressed in an ankle-length shroud. This shroud was either white or gray. Deceased soliders were dressed in military cloaks. If the person was about to be married or had recently been married, they were dressed in their wedding attire. The hair was arranged as it had been in life; the bodies of women were given earrings and a necklace to wear. The jewelry was usually modest.
In antiquity it was customary to place a diadem (crown) on the head of the corpse. The exact reason for this is not known, but most likely it was to add dignity. In Athens, crowns of gold were often used, but more often the crown was made of tree branches or celery. Gold was also used to adorn the deceased in Mycenae (1600-1200 B.C.) The skeletal remains found in the royal graves were literally covered in gold. Some were adorned with pure gold diadems as well as necklaces of golden laurel leaves. But some skeletons, presumed to be those of kings, were found covered with gold masks and breast plates.
The corpse was laid out on a bed with its feet facing the door. The bed was draped with a bier-cloth that had a checkered pattern. A coin was usually placed in the mouth as payment to Charon for ferrying the deceased across the Styx. A linen chin strap was tied around the head or a cushion was placed beneath the head. This was to prevent the jaws from opening. According to Homer, the prothesis could have lasted any number of days, however, in later periods, it lasted for twenty-four hours.
The most important part of the prothesis was the ritual lament. While singing, the persons involved would move around the bier in a pattern resembling a dance. The goos was an improvised lament sung by friends and relatives. Another type of lament called the threnos was sung by professional mourners. The hired singer would lead off the lament followed by the family singing the goos. A chorus of women cried out in accompaniment. In the Pre-Classical period (750-500 B.C.) the entire lament was sung in chorus, while in the Classical period laments called kommoi were sung in turn by principal singers and a chorus.
In the portion of the funeral known as the ekphora, the corpse was brought to the grave by horse-drawn hearse or it was carried by pall-bearers. The pall-bearers were comprised of klimakphoroi (ladder-carriers), mekrophoroi (corpse-carriers), nekrothaptai (corpse-buriers), and tapheis (grave diggers). At one time these pall-bearers were family members, but in later times they were probably hired. Musicians were also hired to provide the music. Men led the procession, and women followed behind. It was customary in some communities to make a sacrifice before the procession started, but this practice was probably abandoned by the Pre-Classical period. The mourners usually did not remain silent while proceeding to the cemetery. They would stop at each street corner and lament in order to attract attention. The women tore at their hair and lacerated their cheeks with their fingernails. In the early days of Christianity, legislation was passed which ordered silence during the ekphora.
Both inhumation and cremation were practiced by the ancient Greeks. When a corpse was cremated, wine was used to extinguish the funeral pyre. A relative gathered the ashes and put them into an urn. Offerings of food and ointments were then made to the dead. These offerings were deposited in the grave or right next to the grave. From the eighth century B.C. through the Classical period, it was common to have an offering trench near the grave. The offerings were set on wooden planks and burned. Remnants of small animals, birds, burnt pottery and shells have been found.
At the conclusion of the burial ceremony, the women were the first to leave so they could go home and prepare a banquet held in honor of the deceased. The men remained behind to finish the preparation of the tomb or grave. When all was done, a stele, very similar to modern gravestones, was placed over the grave.
When a body was interred in a tomb instead of a grave, it may have been one of the following types: a peribolos, which was a family plot; a polyandreion, which was a communal grave; or a heroon which was a monumental tomb built for heroes and VIPs and their families. A heroon was usually composed of several rooms with a courtyard in the center. In the middle of the courtyard was a round section that contained the tomb chamber. Less care was used to bury children than was used for adults. Usually the bodies of children were placed in large, clay pots and then buried.
It was extremely important to family members to visit tombs regularly. Sometimes a childless man would adopt an heir to ensure that someone would visit his grave after he was deceased. Rites were performed at the gravesite on the third, ninth and thirtieth days after death. Visits were then made monthly, annually, and on holidays. On a typical visit, the stele was adorned with colorful ribbons and floral wreaths as well as being annointed with oils. Lekythos vases filled with oil were one of the most popular gifts brought on a visit to the cemetery. On it were painted scenes of people bringing gifts to the grave of a loved one. A feast was laid out at the tomb or gravesite in honor of the deceased. However, it is unknown whether the living ate any of the food or not. Among the food that was used were honey cakes, celery, pomegranates and eggs.
In Pre-Classical times, there is evidence of the ritual slaughter of both animals and humans at gravesites. These blood sacrifices were called haimakouriai. The expression “sphagia entemnein” meaning “cut up the victims” was also used. A sheep or an ox was the animal most often used, and only female or castrated animals were deemed appropriate. The color of the animal was usually black, and it was slaughtered over the offering trench to appease the souls of the dead. Its head was pointed downwards so that the blood would drip down and seep into the earth. The animal was then skinned and burned. These sacrifices were most often made at sunset. In later times, when only animal sacrifices were allowed, human hair was put on the funeral bier as a replacement for an actual human sacrifice.
The pouring of drink offerings known as choai was an important part of the grave rites. Sometimes a feeding tube was inserted into the grave to ensure that the deceased person received the fluid, but most often it was poured over the grave or on the steps leading to the stele. The liquid was made up of honey, milk, water, wine and oil. Sometimes these ingredients were mixed together, and sometimes they were poured individually.
Today, pre-Christian funerary rituals and laments are still practiced in small villages throughout Greece. The dressing and laying out the body are among exactly the same as in antiquity. There are only a few differences in the funeral procession. Before the start of the procession, the village church bells will ring. This summons the priest and the entire population to the home of the deceased where the procession will begin. The procession is led by non-relatives carrying offerings. Next in line are the cantor and priest, followed by the bier which is also carried by non-relatives. At the rear are the family members– first the men, then the women.
A priest presides over a modern burial. He lays a piece of pottery or tile with the inscription “Jesus Christ conquers” on top of the coffin and then throws a clump of dirt on the coffin. The mourners throw fruit and flowers into the grave and sing laments. Immediately after burial, water is passed around so everyone can wash their hands. Then they all gather in the house of the dead person’s family for a feast.
It is customary to exhume the dead after one, three or seven years. If the flesh has completely dissolved, the bones are washed in wine and reinterred. But if the body is black and putrid, it is believed that the dead person has become a revenant. This means that he or she is burning in Hell. When this happens, the remains are usually cremated. The Church has accepted this pagan custom and supervises it.
As you can see, many of the modern funerary customs practiced in the West are derived from those of the ancient Greeks. A major exception is the lament. I would, therefore, like to end with some examples of modern laments:
My love, I loved you well, I kept you well. I kept you as musk in the box and wire in the reed. I kept you as a silver lamp which lit up the home. Not the wire has rusted, the musk has lost its fragrance, now the silver lamp has fallen and shattered.

My sun, where have you set off too, and where will you leave your widow? and where will you leave your mother, an old woman with half a soul? and where will you leave your orphans, young and weak as they are? and where will you leave your brothers? Have you no pity for them? You have left me desolate, what path am I to take? If I turn downwards, there is a precipice, if upwards, a storm. I will go to the monastery, I will put on black, I will leave your children, I will leave your old mother.

I had my child as the sun, and now that my child is obscured, I his mother, am without sun. My child was a bright star, but now he is hidden, and the gloom of night has enshrouded me, his mother. My child was light to me, but he is quenched, and now I walk in darkness.