indication for diflucan aciclovir medicinal chemistry what does generic viagra do pdf list of manufacturer of montelukast sodium tablets metformin walmart price canine allergic reaction to cephalexin famciclovir suppressive therapy dosage sildenafil lima peru viamedic viagra coupons doxycycline effects on wbc overnight delivery mens and womens viagra diflucan 150 pret how long does clomid depression last bactrim gassy cialis 5mg warszawa why lisinopril is given at night wikipedia doryx versus doxycycline main function thyroxine nexium mups 10 mg precio what are long term side effects of prednisone buy kamagra in uk using paypal what are the ingredients in doxycycline hyclate wellbutrin sr patient assistance proscar im ausland bestellen propecia start and stop atomoxetine down syndrome metronidazole ati erythromycin and gastrointestinal bleeding alberta blue cross celebrex special authorization metformin and iv dye viagra in24hours how long has generic plavix been out synthroid and deplin generic viagra safe pharmacy zoloft hypothyroidism weight gain n shock herbal viagra reviews norvasc calcium deficiency how often to take propecia how often can you cum with viagra tell me about furosemide counter effects of prednisone ciprofloxacino 3 dias triam hydrochlorothiazide can bactrim ds cause a yeast infection bupropion and gi bleeding ketoconazole cream and jock itch should teens take viagra ciprofloxacin and neck pain verschil concerta strattera ondansetron paediatric gastroenteritis buy cheap generic cialis online both nolva and clomid amoxicillin 250 mg while pregnant propecia dzialania niepozadane albuterol sulfate drug bank better than levitra cost of zithromax suspension ketoconazole shampoo p line classification gabapentin haloperidol lipitor and creatine levels amitriptyline vs ambien generic metformin side effects 6 mois sous clomid viagra made by pfizer in india olanzapine melting point can anavar and cialis be taken together kamagra autofahren how long men last on viagra il viagra e ritardante lustral and cialis i got fake viagra ist cialis legal stop paxil withdrawal symptoms propecia pharmacy uk levitra filmtabletten tadalafil sildenafil infarto miocardico can flagyl make me tired azithromycin dose skin infection augmentin linfonodi amitriptyline red pill misoprostol 8 weeks zovirax tabletten nebenwirkung medicine erythromycin side effects what is sulphur in celebrex 200 capsule kondomer med viagra tegretol gabapentin can i take cialis if my blood pressure is high allegra liquido bula delivrance viagra viagra red tablet azithromycin feline stomatitis augmentin wann wirkung quantos miligramas tem o viagra zovirax tablets mg who discovered celecoxib difference between nifedipine and nifedipine retard can you take effexor and wellbutrin together why is prednisone given to cancer patients can you mix demerol and phenergan im what to expect when tapering off prednisone levofloxacin ambroxol combination effects on throat furosemide foglietto illustrativo side effects taking clomid while pregnant singulair cost canada seroquel and sleep stages neurontin fasciculations zestril 20 mg prezzo seroquel with diet pills celecoxib safe for pregnancy cialis can increase blood pressure qualitest prednisone dose pack directions 6 day prednisone and neocitran flagyl gi upset side effects of viagra blindness levitra warfarin achen levitra kaufen spironolactone men side effects cialis cost comparison celexa time release nolvadex affect gains stroke from viagra amoxicillin 500mg fish efectos de lisinopril allegra hohenlohe is singulair the same as advair prednisone lasting side effects allegra et manglaviti como tomar el nolvadex prednisone cortisone steroids fresenius kabi tamoxifen gotas de ciprofloxacina doxycycline coverage for staph can you break an allegra pill in half side effects of taking thyroxine ciprofloxacina amamantando ivermectin in dogs dosage need uk tesco viagra today is telmisartan chiral drug can u give dogs zofran buying celexa online viagra accessrx clomid make your period late buy viagra over the counter berlin atorvastatin with vitamin d how much are neurontin pill cost drugs you can get without aprescription in kuala lampur gofeminin viagra can i drink alcohol while taking ofloxacin z pack cephalexin nexium dosage newborn zyvox dosing in renal failure womens vardenafil viagra lexi comp stopping topiramate cold turkey how to taper off wellbutrin xl 150 mg how much should sildenafil cost lipitor menstrual cycle zoloft and diltiazem can gabapentin be used for pain hot flashes baclofen effexor and celexa combination singulair rano strattera company thyroxine prolactin amitriptyline ibs alcohol is cipro effective against staph infection muscle milk accutane silagra baownbeuv side effects lipitor for teenagers is gabapentin good for fibromyalgia can i take nyquil while on clomid buy levitra safe tamoxifeno inductor ovulacion apple cider vinegar instead of nexium do you have to take metformin the same time every day viagra in pharmacy infarmed cialis 5mg amoxicillin diarrhea adults raloxifene et tamoxifene levothyroxine sodium tablets monograph drug interactions with doxycycline hyalite norfloxacin tinidazole drug information buy lasix online overnight delivery can i take advil with cipro can i stop taking cialis daily and then start again viagra over seas celexa in morning or evening cialis 20 nedir cialis avant ou apres repas sildenafil y la hipertension arterial astrazeneca seroquel tablets street use of seroquel cat costa strattera 18 mg how much a month for generic lexapro without insurance how long do you have to take acyclovir sildenafil instructions lexapro vs clonazepam i overdose with 11 pills of quetiapine 50 mg nitric oxide viagra supplements what do you use doxycycline for doxycycline and yaz birth control azithromycin for mac prophylaxis abilify stop taking dose buspar 7.5 nerv pill make u high viagra envio urgente doxycycline 100mg dosage for bladder infection 14 days where can i buy lamisil nail paint taking viagra and fucking teen viagra cialis to italy doxycycline online next day shipping cymbalta farmaco bugiardino will taking 2 cialis harm you inderal in migraine propecia foros finasteride dose cane singulair and rectal bleeding inderal in infants prednisone dosage for 6 days effects of drinking while taking cymbalta kamagra ajanta uk next day allergy to cephalexin and penicillin levaquin and cymbalta wie schnell wirkt amoxicillin bei bronchitis what not to take when taking metronidazole amoxicillin and allergy to penicillin best mg of elavil for depression and headache accutane bad breath how long does withdrawal from elavil last clomid for males cialis tek tablet ne kadar side effects elavil with seroquil levitra cuanto cuesta en venezuela clomid challenge test results babycenter amoxicillin to buy online europe cialis last longer viagra warfarin generic name cialis antihipertensivos augmentin 875 dosage for uti costco abilify cost proscar webmd ciprofloxacin bei akne pfizer viagra original can i take zoloft with hydrocodone achat tadalafil 20 mg amoxicillin clavulanic cats amenorrea cytotec withdrawal symptoms from escitalopram buying amoxicillin at walmart without prescription combination of ofloxacin and cefixime safe to use viagra when trying to get pregnant amoxicillin and claritin d azithromycin dosage how many days ciprofloxacina y sus contraindicaciones can i take levitra and percocet zofran po onset of action my cat ate seroquel zithromax hiv prophylaxis adenoma prevention with celecoxib long term side effects for metformin can we use nolvadex for bodybuilding sa atorvastatin compared to crestor zoloft a fluoksetyna price orlistat in india kamagra krusevac como se usa el clomid purchase azithromycin online no prescription overnight prednisone for dogs side effects kidney cymbalta 120 mg for anxiety detailing story azithromycin amoxicillin baromfi diferenca cialis viagra farmaco generico finasteride clomid vhi tab.acyclovir in treatment of herpes celexa overdose mg actavis doxycycline hyclate lexapro anxiety 5mg como tomar atarax estrace discharge ivf is there a new alternative to propecia does grapefruit juice interfere with celexa olanzapine reducing dose can i take clonidine while im taking clopidogrel diflucan tablet form prednisone weight watchers tamoxifen omega aciclovir en crema o pastillas can nexium cause pale stools clomid pour homme musculation azithromycin max concentration can you drink on abilify alcohol fever on amoxicillin hydrocodone and augmentin ampicillin and gentamicin for chorioamnionitis olanzapine anxiety disorders drug similar to topamax neurontin for hot flashes side effects accutane youngest age post ciclo clomid antifungal activity of fluconazole does taking viagra help with premature ejaculation azithromycin weight loss neurontin stroke lawsuits clomid twins symptoms buy unprescribed clomid online what should you not take with doxycycline things to avoid while taking clomid when to use acyclovir for cold sore bupropion choline finasteride 3 mg prostate how long cipro side effects last alcohol escitalopram interaction neurontin who makes it abilify and concerta together arret cymbalta effet levitra online versand magnesium hydroxide on tetracycline allegra of annapolis premarin emergency contraceptive can you take plavix and zyrtec zoloft generic manufacturers methocarbamol uses and side effects cipro and adverse effects tylenol arthritis and celebrex lisinopril accord ulotka i take metformin for pcos is that causing the sweating metformin cytomel combination inagra sildenafil avodart ? generico viagra alternative qatar viagra quanto costa farmacia best place to buy viagra online forum took prednisone while pregnant where is viagra manufactured pfizer zestril comp.5 mg femara 2.5 mg price in pakistan aldactone et prolactine thyroxine level 5 side effects from high dose flagyl cialis cincinnati oh finasteride and androanagen rabbit estradiol elisa kit albuterol pka taking amitriptyline and lorazepam together erythromycin dental pain how to get generic viagra plavix side effects pain sole of feet wellbutrin hsv colchicine and allopurinol taken together find viagra boyfriend how long does nausea last with fluconazole where can i get amoxicillin for my dog why my hair still fall although using finasteride low dose accutane and surgery levaquin and clarithromycin ok to take cialis 5 mg with flomax where to buy in calgary viagra 60 mg 9 pack prednisone beta estradiol na gravidez aap azithromycin can zithromax cause weight gain dutasteride culturismo neurontin and baclofen 300 mg wellbutrin and weight loss valumec ivermectin liquid pfizer celebrex lawsuit can i buy viagra from gardin in malaysia plavix and infection kamagra oral jelly purchase sildenafil rendimiento deportivo what is the success rate for iui with clomid flomax faringite side effects of antibiotics in 4 month old kitten what is misoprostol pills about viagra for men 150m viagra misoprostol cost without insurance can you take fluconazole and metronidazole hplc method for clopidogrel zyprexa and depression and anxiety sildenafil pfizer 100 mg filmtabletta can you take keflex and alcohol levothyroxine sodium salt pentahydrate ketoconazole zpto nice guidelines olanzapine viagra in omaha plavix ed estrazione dentaria viagra 100 mg controindicazioni methocarbamol side effects in cats se puede tomar cerveza tomando aciclovir hoe lang clomid slikken what food could act as viagra cytotec 200mg la thuoc gi atenolol rowcmoadreders canada adderall abilify interactions how long should you run nolvadex wellbutrin liberacion prolongada finasteride central serous retinopathy viagra for women bay does amoxicillin have ceclor in it viagra mangalore does a man take viagra everyday kuala lumpur cialis dosing liquid nolvadex cheap sildenafil citrate 100mg is seroquel fattening how much celebrex to get high metformin brain repair zoloft pregnancy information cymbalta for general anxiety disorder calibration curve of atorvastatin calcium seroquel and cataracts no heavy bleeding after taking cytotec iv versus oral furosemide cialis bijwerkingen montelukast desloratadine tablets.full storise tadacip vs ceebis clomid sans test neurontin anxiety drug kamagra oral jelly instruction prednisone for colon inflammation meropenem ciprofloxacin how to administer misoprostol can you drink on zyprexa keflex for uterine infection jama sildenafil heart failure estradiol e insulina coreg cr 80 mg price flomax vs tamsulosin generic logest si nizoral cialis is good for what estradiol kaj je to baclofen bluelight amoxicillin gpo amoxicilline samen met ibuprofen how much cialis can i bring on a plane generic paxil vs name brand wellbutrin xl dangers synthroid and postmenopausal bleeding face breakout after accutane tamsulosin sehstorungen does cialis once daily come in a liquid form amitriptyline medicine side effects got success by using finasteride once in a week express generic cialis clomid for men purpose zithromax vs levaquin e transfer nolvadex ontario pharmacy in dubai having viagra how long does it take for metronidazole to work on dogs 20 mg of lexapro and 1mg of klonopin cephalexin 500mg for humans and dogs femara implantation bleeding propecia and vivid dreams how much clomid nolvadex hcg for pct looking for viagra in houston can you take topamax and naproxen viagra how does it make you feel doxycycline orlando craigslist augmentin na rope w zebie meu marido tomou cialis symptoms synthroid withdrawal cymbalta duloxetina contraindicaciones glen metformin valacyclovir prevent cold sore augmentin suspension posologia mayfair hotel cipro levofloxacin colitis accutane breaking out month 3 wellbutrin alcohol side effects weight loss after celexa withdrawal paxil dangers lawsuits vibramycin rowcmoadreders no prescription can i take half a cialis 20mg kamagra 1000 mg plavix generic free program norvasc therapeutic uses lamictal and celexa for bipolar cephalexin pil what are metoprolol tartrate tablets accutane makes my scalp itch pediatric cyproheptadine appetite stimulant dosage zithromax darmflora can humans take veterinary cephalexin strattera pack size recommended doses of azithromycin lasix and sleeping difficulties can diflucan cause cramps sildenafil place of origin ivermectina contraindicaciones en ovinos in which pharmacy of singapore available clomid tablets dostinex tratament amitriptyline na bol glowy baclofen urine steroids for dogs prednisone metformin kullanip hamile kalanlar cheap amitriptyline online aciclovir hsv 1 how does diazapam interact with viagra cialis makes me crap

Related Articles
« MO »
About the Author
Loretta M. Alirangues (formerly Accardo) is the editor of Nox, A Journal of the Night. Nox was a print zine from April 1993 through Oct. 1996 (7 issues). It was resurrected as an e-zine in late 1999. The Funerary Practices series appeared in print (issues 1-4, and 6). Loretta and her husband, Paul, live in North Central New Jersey with their two cats, Smokey and Misty. For news and updates for the online version of Nox, please join the Nox e-list at Yahoogroups. Loretta can be contacted by e-mail.
« MO »

Ill | Erin Elise Williams



Funerary Practices in the Victorian Era
Loretta M. Alirangues
Grandiose is not too strong a word to use to describe the manner in which a Victorian funeral was conducted. Today’s society has moved away from that sort of pomp. Part of the reason for this is that most people have an aversion to discussing death, cemeteries and corpses, when in fact, funerals and mourning occur every day. Cremations are becoming more popular today due to the lack of burial space. However, during the Victorian Era (characterized as the period of Queen Victoria’s reign over Great Britain and Ireland from 1837 to 1901) no expense was spared when arranging a proper burial.
Many lower class persons planned ahead and saved money for their children’s funerals because the mortality rate was so high. They wanted to ensure that if their children did not survive, they would still be able to have a grand funeral for them. By saving money for funerals, they often deprived their families of the necessary comforts of living.
A Victorian funeral procession was an extraordinary sight. It was led by various foot attendants: pall bearers who carried batons, feathermen, pages and mutes who dressed in gowns and carried wands. Because these men often had to stand out in the cold, they were given lots of gin to drink. This often resulted in disorderly conduct. As you can imagine, this would greatly upset the family of the deceased because these men had been hired to conduct themselves in a solemn manner.
The first coach in the procession was the hearse. It was black, with glass sides, and had lots of silver and gold decoration. A huge canopy of black ostrich feathers covered the hearse. Inside lay the coffin. It was shiny and polished, and had moldings, expensive metal handles and inscribed plates. Sometimes the coffin was covered with black, purple or dark green cloth that was attached to it with brass, silver or gilt-headed nails. The hearse was also filled with flowers. Six black horses pulled the hearse, and the horses had black ostrich feather plumes on their heads.
The rest of the coaches followed behind the hearse. Each contained mourners, and usually the blinds were drawn. The men wore full mourning suits with crape bands around their top hats. The women wore black gowns made of crape, with black veils and black gloves. They held black-edged handkerchiefs to their eyes. Mourning fans made of black ostrich feathers were carried by their tortoiseshell handles. Jewelry made of jet was worn.
The procession made its way at walking pace from the house of the deceased along main roads leading out of town to the cemetery. Sometimes a detour was made through important areas in order to achieve a maximum display. Once the procession was out of town, everyone on foot climbed on to the coaches, and the procession was led at a brisk trot. Upon arrival at the cemetery gates, the foot attendants climbed down from the coaches, and the procession once again continued at walking pace.
The procession stopped at a chapel in the center of the cemetery. The mourners remained dignified and calm as they entered the chapel. The coffin was carried in and laid on a bier. At the end of the funeral service, the coffin was either lowered through the floor into catacombs, or the ceremony ended outside at the place of burial. If indeed the ceremony did end up at the actual burial site, the women would leave and only the men would remain to witness the actual interment.
A feast was held at the home of the deceased; sometimes after the funeral, but sometimes before the funeral with the body being present. Ham, cider, ale, pies and cakes were the usual fare. Not only the immediate family would be present, but all the distant relatives too. Cards were sent out to friends, business associates and acquaintances inviting them to the funeral.
Mourning cards were another tradition. These were supplied by the undertaker. They were printed in black and silver on white, and were embossed with traditional symbols of grief such as an inverted torch, a weeping willow, a shrouded urn or kneeling female mourners. These cards were mounted on ornamental memorial-card mounts. They were intended as reminders of the dead so that the recipient would be sure to offer prayers for the deceased. The card contained the name and age of the dead person as well as the date and place of burial.
Here are examples of what was included when arranging either a cheap or an expensive funeral with an undertaker:
Funeral costing £5 – Hearse, with one horse; mourning coach, with one horse; stout elm coffin, covered with fine black, plate of inscription, lid ornaments, and three pairs of handles, mattress, pillow, and a pair of side sheets; use of velvet pall, mourners’ fittings, coachmen with hat-bands and gloves; bearers; attendant with silk hat-band.
Funeral costing £53 – Hearse and four horses, two mourning coaches with fours, twenty-three plumes of rich ostrich feathers, complete velvet covering for carriages and horses, and an esquire’s plume of best feathers; strong elm shell, with tufted mattress, lined and ruffled with superfine cambric, and pillow; full worked glazed cambric winding-sheet, stout outside lead coffin, with inscription plate and solder complete; one-and-a-half-inch oak case, covered with black or crimson velvet, set with three rows round, and lid paneled with best brass nails; stout brass plate of inscription, richly engraved; four pairs of best brass handles and grips, lid ornaments to correspond; use of silk velvet pall; two mutes with gowns, silk hat-bands and gloves; fourteen men as pages, feathermen, and coachmen, with truncheons and wands, silk hat-bands; use of mourners; fittings; and attendant with silk hat-band.
Many of Britain’s nineteenth century cemeteries were modeled after the famous Pere-la-Chaise cemetery in Paris. Until this time, Britain had only small churchyards. The population was increasing, and these churchyards became so full that partially-rotted corpses were disinterred to make way for new ones. It was common to visit a graveyard and see graves that had been dug up with bones strewn about. The Victorians wanted large, new cemeteries established outside the cities to provide more hygienic and dignified resting places for their deceased. These cemeteries were designed to be beautiful places where visitors could stroll down long, shaded walks.
There were quite a wide variety of grave monuments to be found in Victorian cemeteries. Traditional urns, broken columns, busts of the deceased and angels could be found alongside Egyptian-style obelisks and pyramids. Chaste classical tombstones lay among wild Gothic fantasies. Catacombs were laid out below cemetery chapels, while large, family mausoleums rose above them. The poor, however, were consigned to common graves that usually lay four deep.
After burial, the period of mourning depended upon a person’s relation to the deceased. Mourning for a spouse, parent or child was to last 12 months. For grandparents, brothers or sisters six months was sufficient, and for uncles and aunts it was only two months. During this period a widow was required to dress completely in black crape for the entire year, and in most other instances, the relative wore black crape for approximately 2/3 of the mourning period. After the allotted time, black silk was allowed to be worn in place of crape for the remainder of the mourning period. Mourning dress is actually associated with a deeply rooted fear of the dead returning. When veiled and cloaked in black, it was thought that the living were invisible to the dead.
The Victorians were the last society to truly celebrate death, as did the ancient Egyptians and other cultures before them. Many Victorian cemeteries have now been destroyed to make way for parks or public housing projects. Grave monuments are not usually as large or as ornate as they once were. A growing number of people today have little or no contact with actual corpses due to the prevalence of cremation. Unfortunately, in trying to play down the role of death in today’s society, less value is placed upon life.