gabapentin and endone buy chloramphenicol eye drops for dogs phenergan dosage 2 year old doxycycline mono male fertility how long can cialis be taken after viagra provera medroxyprogesterone 100mg can i buy chloromycetin eye drops over the counter can i use ketoconazole to treat ghonorrhea what would happen if i took a viagra and used bathmate tetracycline side effects in humans hydrochlorothiazide rash benadryl i would like to purchase cialis using mastercard can buspar make you high what causes frequent urinating on clomid dose can you take cipro with nexium metformin side effects medscape redhead on cialis spironolactone side effects blood pressure erythromycin eye ointment side effects on newborn hydroxyzine pamoate online can i buy viagra over the counter in germany buy nolvadex online australia albuterol 6 month old baby can you get high with buspirone 15 mg remeron i norge metronidazole 250 cialis 20 mg how to use what does seroquel do if you inject it amoxicillin for kidney infection dosage side effects getting off bupropion cephalexin uses in dogs tamoxifen side effects in men neurontin side effects burning mouth viagra price for one pill typical dosage of amoxicillin for a sinus infection how much does viagra sell for on the street generic plavix no prescription cheapest orlistat in india finasteride uk online ip monograph of gabapentine fertility drug clomiphene side effects taking diflucan before an ivf cycle 875 mg amoxicillin tooth propecia has no side effects tab montelukast in lactation buy orlistat from canada obat flagyl sirup paxil antidepresent drug cost in india meloxicam 400 cost of misoprostol and cytotec in kenya synthroid 62.5 mcg trazodone 25 mg for sleep cheap dutasteride online what are wives saying about viagra lexapro for ptsd clomid 50 packungsbeilage drinking expierd biotech ciprofloxacin what symptoms can you take ace topamax seroqueal and remeron tigether strattera vs aderall levitra does your erection last esomeprazole strontium 49.3mg buy levitra legal who owns verapamil tab.minipress xl 20 nizoral cream price nigeria is flagyl an over the counter drug in the philippines where can i buy amoxicillin in england is metronidazole dissolvable does metronidazole is effective in tonsillitis cozaar walmrt price cheap viagra dapoxetine augmentine 625 mg safe for 17 year olds metronidazole vaginal gel purchase without prescribtion doxycycline monohydrate 100mg uses is buspirone also known as suboxone avapro cost 150 mg glimepiride 7256 guy on viagra fucking irbesartan 300 mg buy can a 8 year old take 20mg of lexapro amoxicillin online prescription lisinopril addict can easing side effects of sertraline withdrawal sypmtoms ciprovan tablet do lyrica or neurontin get you high buy zyban uk vistaril and prednisone cyproheptadine to poultry lisinopril cough uk can you buy cialis over the counter in argentina does the medicine flomax cause diarrhea shoulder pain from prednisone withdrawal hyzaar 100mg 25mg stopping gabapentin and starting lyrica bupropion hcl xl 150 mg and prozac 20 mg who should use clomid the man or women how long will diarrhea from levofloxacin last cardizem 30 mg side effects ivermectin .05 dosage buy viagra fast delivery joint pain lisinopril viagra tablets for sale uk how long before antibiotics work for giardia in cats can 400mg wellbutrin cause diarrhea elavil for sale DORREAJATETXEA.COM montelukast singuler sold in mexico redhead on cialis side effects of stopping glucophage DORREAJATETXEA.COM dosis de cytotec para dilatar augmentin 1g glaxosmithkline breast feeding mother can take ciprodac tablet en donde puedo conseguir cytotec en saltillo sin receta acyclovir 200 mg once daily fluconazole tablets ip 150mg use does ic buspirone help ed augmentin 125mg va preso ogni 8 ore successful treatment of ozena with ciprofloxacin is it safe to take 3000mg of valtrex for herpes nexiam esomeprazole 10 mg levites vardenafil hc1 tablets acid reflux from proventil inhaler stromectol lice dosage obat salep zovirax what time of day to take aspirin and synthroid purchase flomax generic gabapentin yellow capsule 215 tamoxifen citrate for gyno zyvox 600 mg indicaciones coumadin price walmart amoxicillin 200 mg dosage for 3 month old metronidazole dosage c diff thuoc amoxicillin875mg buy propecia no prescription online discount priced viagra tetracycline mgd bactrim sospensione orale bambini antibiotico accutane 5 months or 6 months si uso oral misoprostol r singulair oral granules 4mg zithromax chlamydia ireland terbinafine 250mg used to treat jock itch frusemide 20mg tablets for dogs no prescription walmart brand of erectile buy generic augmentin can metronidazole treat staph infections how effective is lamisil pills most common side effects of acyclovir benedryl to take levaquin lamisil sirve para hongos en el pene bedeutung levitra als schmerztablette fungsi doxycycline capsule 100 mg viagra soft tabs online metronidazole over the counter pills for people viagra after 4 hours citalopram hydrobromide tablets 20mg side effects lisinopril theraputic range how long does dizziness from zoloft last kegunaan obat provera tab 100 mg vancomycin tetracycline hydrochloride 250 mg buy phenergan elixir online uk fluconazole what to expect synthroid pills online will one pill 500mg of azithromycin cure chlamydia dapoxetine can be with redbull vendo nexium 40mg guatemala does 1000 mg of azithromycin cure chlamydia that day different between flagyl pills anda morning after pill furosemide infusione continua eltroxin with clomid and ultrasound order ketoconazole cream online trazodone apo 750 abilify dosage sizes famciclovir equivalent valacyclovir fluconazole pemakaian tetracycline alturnative for cats parasites respond diflucan can you take meloxicam without food DORREAJATETXEA.COM strattera gastritis pms bupropion sr 150 mg is it to help quit smoking will welbutin help stop sugar cravings from zoloft wellbutrin rectally you get high fluconazole uk over counter lipitor serve para emagrecer iv compatibility flagyl and zosyn flagyl liquid price for infants azithromycin ehrlichiosis what is the normal dosage of lasix zovirax dosage for outbreak 30 mg buspirone bar doxycycline hyclate dr odt metronidazole price in the philippines cuanto valen las pastillas misoprostol colombia amoxicillin use in lactating dogs topamax for pmdd is hydroxyzine a controlled drug singapore ringworm tolnaftate or terbinafine propecia on ebay uk ajenta super kamagra sildenafil black cobra posologie cialis cheap discount montelukast 10 mg coupon para qsirve ciproflox prometrium 200 mg suppositories side effects metformin 850 mg and weight loss glucophage sr sweet taste in mouth tofranil 25 mg tab global metformin sales fosamax 10 mg dosierung generic cialis pills western open meaning of cyproheptadinetricholine citrate augmentin liquid dosage for dogs icd 9 clozapine prednisone side effects nephrotic syndrome baclofen in ft worth tx percentage usage of clomid and pregnyl plavix cost per pill buy strattera for uk side effects of thyroxine pills how to use misoprostol 200 mg orally can six month old get albuterol breathing treatments topamax instructions buy viagra sydney amoxillin clavulanic acid cause drowsiness seroquel for eating disorders starting clomid without period first treating sibo with amoxicillin uses nexium 40 mg can u inject buspirone too much synthroid my accident naproxen 500 mg tablet get you high metronidazole vs metronidazole benzoate escitalopram high dose anxiety kegunaan zovirax acyclovir cream buy plavix in canada meglio voltaren o reparil per cervicale does metformin deplete men from iron cuanto cuesta la pastilla propecia pptthe difference between tamsulosin and alfazosin how many tabs of colchicine can you take per day propranolol price walgreens misoprostol 02 mg e verdadeiro clopidogrel bisulfate price in the philippines zovirax mercury drug buy flagyl from canada gi side effects of erythromycin accutane fpr sale yellow pill clomid without iui success xn--b1afpdqbb8d.xn--p1ai first use of teva sildenafil100mg order cialis new zealand similarities between lisinopril and zafirlukast xeloda 150 mg nebenwirkungen antidepressant to use in combination with cymbalta desogestrel engorda can augmentin 625mg treat pneumonia medroxyprogesterone acetate explain in hindi bactrim ds dor 3 days and not helping sandoz ciprofloxacin 500 mg side effects erythromycin cream for insect bite long term effects of taking hydroxyzine can i buy s3 sandoz furosemide 40 over the counter carvedilol 25 co diovan 360 mg side effects propecia uk price boots wildcat clomid sildenafil tablets 100mg uk how long does 20mg of cialis last quetiapine 200 side effects zovirax pregnancy category australia compare avapro and generic irbesartan what is another name for acyclovir in nigeria flagyl 500 mg tabletas orales average cost lexapro without insurance metronidazole dosing for worms makna viagra xn--b1afpdqbb8d.xn--p1ai buy orlistat online cheap flagyl tablet india price diflucan eye drops solution make misoprostol trade names in myanmar how long does daily dose cialis take to work chlamydia treatment azithromycin how long proscar 5mg buy erectile dysfunction and amino acid in south africa side effects of accutane yeast infection buy duloxetine get levothyroxine online is there a loading dose of ondansetron in canine apnea delsym and zoloft what is metoprolol m50 propranolol la vs inderal migraine how long does opiate stay in your system baclofen will 2400 mg of levofloxacin treating chlamydia can i give my dog zofrano for an upset stomach clomid cost australia dapoxetine 15mg what is the hcpcs code for proventil metronidazole for trichomoniasis why 8 pills at once meloxicam 15 mg tablet flomax relief launch uk kamagra online uk ic misoprostol 200mcg tablet side effects of long term prednisone in dogs bactrim sbp prophylaxis dose how long is phenergan good for levofloxacina precio viagra c50 trazodone 150 mg price does celebrex decrease effectiveness of codeine can erythromycin treat toe infection levothyroxine dizziness side effects nizoral shampoo price in uae atorvastatin calcium walmart interazione tachidol e coumadin ciprofloxacin hcl 500mg for toothache how can you heal from meniscal tears caused by levaquin how long do side effects last for drinking on flagyl is 450mg of wellbutrin safe propranolol brands australia muscle trembling from feline prednisone withdrawal warfarin brands australia zithromax dosage philippines voltaren emulgel how long after taking cialis does it start to work buy metronidazole gel rosacea ciprofloxacin 500 mg and alcohol donde puedo conseguir cytotec en lima does cialis work with beta blockers lioresal 5 mg preis pharmalife sildenafil tabletas 100 mg. tinnitus plavix aspirin pct with nolvadex dosage danger of prednisone mankinds misoprostol tablet in india side effects of clomid 150 mg per day generic viagra australia paypal can i use albuterol without a nebulizer nizoral ovules 400mg poison ivy prednisone dosage age can affect azithromycin 250 mg pregnancy kamagra online cipro elixir ketoconazole hovid for thrush remeron 7.5 mg weight gain estradiol 32 mg transdermal patch cost depaxil cr used for sertraline 50 mg lethargic dapoxetine for sale online amoxicillin dosage chart for dogs coumadin and tylenol doxycycline for strep throat buy bactrim forum nizoral shampoo green antifungal cytotec misoprostol comprimindo bloating propecia citalopram dosage forms escitalopram 20 mg at night 200 mg of clomid how likely will i have multiples convert labetalol to lopressor iv MASTERRAFTING.COM the uses of prednisone patent expiration date propecia trying to conceive and augmentin escitalopram mo:1 clomid 13 dpo spotting bfn buspar in ireland viagra tablets in india erythromycin stearate 250 mg dosage

Related Articles
« MO »
About the Author
Loretta M. Alirangues (formerly Accardo) is the editor of Nox, A Journal of the Night. Nox was a print zine from April 1993 through Oct. 1996 (7 issues). It was resurrected as an e-zine in late 1999. The Funerary Practices series appeared in print (issues 1-4, and 6). Loretta and her husband, Paul, live in North Central New Jersey with their two cats, Smokey and Misty. For news and updates for the online version of Nox, please join the Nox e-list at Yahoogroups. Loretta can be contacted by e-mail.
« MO »

Ill | Erin Elise Williams



Funerary Practices in the Victorian Era
Loretta M. Alirangues
Grandiose is not too strong a word to use to describe the manner in which a Victorian funeral was conducted. Today’s society has moved away from that sort of pomp. Part of the reason for this is that most people have an aversion to discussing death, cemeteries and corpses, when in fact, funerals and mourning occur every day. Cremations are becoming more popular today due to the lack of burial space. However, during the Victorian Era (characterized as the period of Queen Victoria’s reign over Great Britain and Ireland from 1837 to 1901) no expense was spared when arranging a proper burial.
Many lower class persons planned ahead and saved money for their children’s funerals because the mortality rate was so high. They wanted to ensure that if their children did not survive, they would still be able to have a grand funeral for them. By saving money for funerals, they often deprived their families of the necessary comforts of living.
A Victorian funeral procession was an extraordinary sight. It was led by various foot attendants: pall bearers who carried batons, feathermen, pages and mutes who dressed in gowns and carried wands. Because these men often had to stand out in the cold, they were given lots of gin to drink. This often resulted in disorderly conduct. As you can imagine, this would greatly upset the family of the deceased because these men had been hired to conduct themselves in a solemn manner.
The first coach in the procession was the hearse. It was black, with glass sides, and had lots of silver and gold decoration. A huge canopy of black ostrich feathers covered the hearse. Inside lay the coffin. It was shiny and polished, and had moldings, expensive metal handles and inscribed plates. Sometimes the coffin was covered with black, purple or dark green cloth that was attached to it with brass, silver or gilt-headed nails. The hearse was also filled with flowers. Six black horses pulled the hearse, and the horses had black ostrich feather plumes on their heads.
The rest of the coaches followed behind the hearse. Each contained mourners, and usually the blinds were drawn. The men wore full mourning suits with crape bands around their top hats. The women wore black gowns made of crape, with black veils and black gloves. They held black-edged handkerchiefs to their eyes. Mourning fans made of black ostrich feathers were carried by their tortoiseshell handles. Jewelry made of jet was worn.
The procession made its way at walking pace from the house of the deceased along main roads leading out of town to the cemetery. Sometimes a detour was made through important areas in order to achieve a maximum display. Once the procession was out of town, everyone on foot climbed on to the coaches, and the procession was led at a brisk trot. Upon arrival at the cemetery gates, the foot attendants climbed down from the coaches, and the procession once again continued at walking pace.
The procession stopped at a chapel in the center of the cemetery. The mourners remained dignified and calm as they entered the chapel. The coffin was carried in and laid on a bier. At the end of the funeral service, the coffin was either lowered through the floor into catacombs, or the ceremony ended outside at the place of burial. If indeed the ceremony did end up at the actual burial site, the women would leave and only the men would remain to witness the actual interment.
A feast was held at the home of the deceased; sometimes after the funeral, but sometimes before the funeral with the body being present. Ham, cider, ale, pies and cakes were the usual fare. Not only the immediate family would be present, but all the distant relatives too. Cards were sent out to friends, business associates and acquaintances inviting them to the funeral.
Mourning cards were another tradition. These were supplied by the undertaker. They were printed in black and silver on white, and were embossed with traditional symbols of grief such as an inverted torch, a weeping willow, a shrouded urn or kneeling female mourners. These cards were mounted on ornamental memorial-card mounts. They were intended as reminders of the dead so that the recipient would be sure to offer prayers for the deceased. The card contained the name and age of the dead person as well as the date and place of burial.
Here are examples of what was included when arranging either a cheap or an expensive funeral with an undertaker:
Funeral costing £5 – Hearse, with one horse; mourning coach, with one horse; stout elm coffin, covered with fine black, plate of inscription, lid ornaments, and three pairs of handles, mattress, pillow, and a pair of side sheets; use of velvet pall, mourners’ fittings, coachmen with hat-bands and gloves; bearers; attendant with silk hat-band.
Funeral costing £53 – Hearse and four horses, two mourning coaches with fours, twenty-three plumes of rich ostrich feathers, complete velvet covering for carriages and horses, and an esquire’s plume of best feathers; strong elm shell, with tufted mattress, lined and ruffled with superfine cambric, and pillow; full worked glazed cambric winding-sheet, stout outside lead coffin, with inscription plate and solder complete; one-and-a-half-inch oak case, covered with black or crimson velvet, set with three rows round, and lid paneled with best brass nails; stout brass plate of inscription, richly engraved; four pairs of best brass handles and grips, lid ornaments to correspond; use of silk velvet pall; two mutes with gowns, silk hat-bands and gloves; fourteen men as pages, feathermen, and coachmen, with truncheons and wands, silk hat-bands; use of mourners; fittings; and attendant with silk hat-band.
Many of Britain’s nineteenth century cemeteries were modeled after the famous Pere-la-Chaise cemetery in Paris. Until this time, Britain had only small churchyards. The population was increasing, and these churchyards became so full that partially-rotted corpses were disinterred to make way for new ones. It was common to visit a graveyard and see graves that had been dug up with bones strewn about. The Victorians wanted large, new cemeteries established outside the cities to provide more hygienic and dignified resting places for their deceased. These cemeteries were designed to be beautiful places where visitors could stroll down long, shaded walks.
There were quite a wide variety of grave monuments to be found in Victorian cemeteries. Traditional urns, broken columns, busts of the deceased and angels could be found alongside Egyptian-style obelisks and pyramids. Chaste classical tombstones lay among wild Gothic fantasies. Catacombs were laid out below cemetery chapels, while large, family mausoleums rose above them. The poor, however, were consigned to common graves that usually lay four deep.
After burial, the period of mourning depended upon a person’s relation to the deceased. Mourning for a spouse, parent or child was to last 12 months. For grandparents, brothers or sisters six months was sufficient, and for uncles and aunts it was only two months. During this period a widow was required to dress completely in black crape for the entire year, and in most other instances, the relative wore black crape for approximately 2/3 of the mourning period. After the allotted time, black silk was allowed to be worn in place of crape for the remainder of the mourning period. Mourning dress is actually associated with a deeply rooted fear of the dead returning. When veiled and cloaked in black, it was thought that the living were invisible to the dead.
The Victorians were the last society to truly celebrate death, as did the ancient Egyptians and other cultures before them. Many Victorian cemeteries have now been destroyed to make way for parks or public housing projects. Grave monuments are not usually as large or as ornate as they once were. A growing number of people today have little or no contact with actual corpses due to the prevalence of cremation. Unfortunately, in trying to play down the role of death in today’s society, less value is placed upon life.